Aesthetic design values are the basis of a number of philosophical movements in architecture. The debates over the preservation and restoration of architectural heritage, for example, highlight how a building’s ethical valence contributes to its cultural and aesthetic value.
The dictum “form follows function” raises philosophical questions about whether this is an inviolable architectural principle or just a metaphysical one. Philosophical movements like German idealism, phenomenology and structuralism all address this issue.
For many architects, color plays a crucial role in their designs. The colors used in a design can help create an emotional impact on the audience, and can influence their emotions and feelings. For example, the color red is often associated with power and passion. In contrast, orange is a more cheerful color that inspires creativity.
The philosophy of architecture has been influenced by numerous philosophical sub-disciplines, such as idealism and phenomenology, structuralism and post-structuralism, the Frankfurt School, and psychoanalytic theory. These philosophies have contributed to a diverse range of aesthetic architectural design ideas.
In the main, theories of color in the philosophy of architecture are classified as either physicalist or phenomenological. The distinction is based on whether the properties of color that one’s theory talks about are those that physical objects and light-sources possess: the physicalist version, or qualities that visual experiences present as being in certain kinds of objects and lighting conditions: the phenomenological version.
The feel of a surface or material is known as texture. This can include rough, smooth, hard, or soft. It is often used to create contrast in two-dimensional paintings, or even in three-dimensional works such as sculptures. Artists use a variety of techniques to create the feeling of texture in their work, including heavy paint application (impasto) or the inclusion of different materials such as cloth, clay, or plaster.
Some scholars propose that ethical architectural design tasks simply reflect ethical choices, whereas others suggest a more nuanced view that sometimes aesthetic and moral criteria go hand in hand. A third position, per functional beauty theory, suggests that aesthetic evaluations of buildings are based on their effectiveness in accomplishing practical concerns.
In the field of architecture, these practical concerns can include anything from cost-effectiveness to sustainability. Ultimately, the goal of architectural design is to produce functional buildings that also satisfy aesthetic and moral criteria. Aesthetics may be an afterthought, but they are a key part of the process. Think about the iconic castles and churches that have become emblems of their respective nations; they were designed to be beautiful as well as useful.
Space is an architectural concept that plays a huge role in many designs. A good architect understands that spaces can have aesthetic implications as well. This is especially true for commercial or industrial buildings. A business or factory that lacks a pleasing appearance may not attract customers or be considered as professional.
The philosophical theory of space has had a large influence on architects and architectural theorists. The ideas of movements such as phenomenology, structuralism and post-structuralism have been influential in the development of contemporary architectural theory.
The philosophy of architecture has become increasingly intertwined with ethical and social philosophy as well as with practical design considerations. This has shifted the principal focus of the philosophy of architecture from aesthetics to a more general concern with how the built environment can enhance or detract from a virtuous and flourishing life. This heightened connection between architecture and philosophy has also brought about the idea that aesthetic judgments are culturally conditioned. This idea is based on the premise that an architecture must be able to respond to the concerns and values of people who use it, as well as the needs of those who are exposed to it.
For many architects and design theorists, the concept of balancing aesthetic values is a major issue. They argue that architecture should be evaluated by its ability to materialize visions of how we might want to live. This evaluation can be influenced by a number of philosophical sub-disciplines including utopian characterizations of the city and discourses on meaning and symbolism.
Another important architectural design value is the celebration of novelty in design solutions and styles. This emphasis is often rooted in early design movements such as Modernism with its stress on starting from scratch. It is seen as essential to progress and a vital element of aesthetic beauty.
Lagueux (2004) argues that for the architect, ethics and aesthetic problems are intrinsically connected. He suggests that architecture is unique in this way because it is a discipline that constantly confronts the architect with issues that could be viewed as moral or ethical. A simple example would be the design of a building whose location satisfies aesthetic considerations for pleasing views, and ethical concerns such as due concern for neighbors’ privacy.
An architectural design idea that is both functional and aesthetic is form. It may have to do with a particular building’s purpose, such as a commercial atrium designed for the public, or with the desire for a building to promote certain values and attitudes, such as the dynamism of an urban space.
The dictum that “form follows function” has been seen as an inviolable principle offering unique design solutions, especially when associated with Modernist architects early in the 20th century and later. It’s a view that can be found in the writings of Adolf Loos, who denounced building ornament as a crime, and Frank Lloyd Wright, who promoted functionalist principles.
A more refined version of the theory, based on Christopher Alexander’s work on the synthesis of form, emphasizes that beauty in architecture is best gauged as an ethical issue and not merely a matter of artistic preference. This kind of view, endorsed by scholars such as Roger Scruton, links the moral premium for environmentally sustaining designs with the need to create attractive forms that promote moral values.
Although the expansion of architectural and industrial design ideas and vocabularies has created a diverse aesthetic reality within these two domains, many of the stylistic distinctions are not based on fundamental differences in design values and theory.
For example, the dictum “form should follow function” may well apply to engineering or industrial design but it is difficult to justify in terms of architecture. Certainly, the proposed use of a space will influence some aspects of its form, but the idea that a specific shape must be dictated by its function seems far too prescriptive and more suited to an engineering design philosophy than an architectural one.
Aesthetic considerations can also be addressed through the use of scale and manipulation of light. Architects can create different moods and emotional responses through manipulation of these design elements, such as the use of soft and diffused lighting to evoke a sense of calm or dramatic and intense lighting to create excitement.
In addition, architects can address ethical challenges through the integration of aesthetics and function. This can include the insertion of windows or doors to satisfy aesthetic considerations such as pleasing views and functional ones such as providing privacy.
The word detail refers to the small part or feature that is considered individually from the whole. For example, a smile is just one detail of Leonardo da Vinci’s Mona Lisa. When used in architecture, it means that every design element, from the choice of window type to the color of trim, presents an opportunity for aesthetic consideration.
In some philosophical discussions, the idea of “detail” can also apply to a broader question of how ethics and aesthetics might interact in architectural design. For instance, there are theories that suggest that Vitruvian principles and functional beauty theory link the aesthetically desirable with the ethically upstanding. Other philosophers, though, take a more pluralist view and argue that sometimes the two go hand in hand and at other times not.
In any case, it is possible to find examples of architectural designs that seem to conflate the incomplete aesthetic with the structural motif of ruins. For example, the renovated offices of B.L.U.E. Architecture Studio feature an open entryway carved into a preexisting brick wall, creating a sense of ambiguity between construction and destruction.